ロシア ウクライナの冬を兵器化する Jan-Philipp Scholz










How Russia is weaponizing winter in Ukraine

Jan-Philipp Scholz


Russia is expanding its attacks on civilian infrastructure in Ukraine. At the start of winter, there are hundreds of thousands of people without electricity or heating. DW reporter Jan-Phillipp Scholz met some of them.


The most beautiful time of the year is beginning ⁠— at least according to Polina and her friends. They've already written their wish list for Santa Claus, and it's even starting to snow. Most of the other children have left their remote villages on the northeastern edge of Ukraine's Kharkiv region since the Russian invasion. The school there has been closed for a while now. The first snow of the year is a welcome change.

  少なくともポリーナと彼女の友達によると、一年で最も美しい時期が始まります。彼らはすでにサンタ クロースのウィッシュ リストを書き上げており、雪も降り始めています。他の子どもたちのほとんどは、ロシアの侵略以来、ウクライナのハリコフ地方の北東端にある人里離れた村を離れました。そこの学校はしばらく閉鎖されています。今年の初雪は歓迎すべき変化です。

Concern about dropping temperatures

"Now we can start ice-skating and have snowball fights!" says Polina excitedly. The ten-year-old has already built her first snowman of the season with her friends. They even managed to find a carrot for its nose. And according to weather forecasts, their snowman won't be melting any time soon. Temperatures are predicted to drop as low as -12 degrees Celcius (10 degrees Fahrenheit) in the coming days.

But the majority of adults in the region aren't exactly thrilled about the weather forecast. On the contrary: the falling temperatures raise concerns that they might not survive the coming months. 

"It's getting colder here every night. I don't even want to think about what that could lead to," says Iryna. She's a retiree who lives on the edge of Izium in a prefabricated apartment from the days of the Soviet Union. Her 6-story building has been hit several times by artillery fire. Almost all of her neighbors have left, but Iryna stayed.

"Where would I go?" she asks. "To escape I'd at least need a car and some savings. The majority of the older people here can't just leave so easily. Besides, it's almost certain that looters will come if no one stays here."

Iryna invested the last of her money in new windows. Her old ones were all destroyed by the pressure from explosions. She's patched up the holes with thick blankets to reduce the amount of cold air that enters her apartment.

  「これでアイススケートを始めたり、雪合戦をしたりできます!」ポリーナは興奮して言います。10 歳の彼女は、今シーズン初めての雪だるまを友達と一緒に作りました。彼らは鼻にニンジンを見つけることさえできました。天気予報によると、彼らの雪だるまはすぐには溶けません。今後数日間、気温は摂氏マイナス 12 度 (華氏 10 度) まで下がると予測されています。


「ここは毎晩寒くなっています。それが何につながるか考えたくありません」とイリーナは言います。彼女は旧ソ連時代のイジウムのはずれにあるプレハブのアパートに住む退職者だ。彼女の 6 階建ての建物は、砲撃によって数回攻撃を受けました。近所の人はほとんど家を出てしまいましたが、イリーナはとどまりました。


Iryna は最後のお金を新しい窓に投資しました。彼女の古いものは、爆発による圧力によってすべて破壊されました. 彼女はアパートに入る冷たい空気の量を減らすために、厚い毛布で穴をふさぎました.

It's getting colder every the day inside her appartment, says IrynaImage: DW



The central heating for the entire unit was also destroyed by shelling last month. In the fall, volunteers came by and brought Iryna an electric heater she can use during the winter months. She's thankful to them to this day, but it's still often cold in her home.

For weeks, Russia has been rapidly expanding its war against Ukraine's energy infrastructure. Power outages are now increasingly common in parts of Ukraine.

"We recently didn't have electricity for two days," Iryna recalls. In situations like that, she has only one option: dress more warmly and use up the last of her gas reserves for some hot tea.

  ユニット全体のセントラル ヒーティングも先月の砲撃で破壊されました。秋になると、ボランティアがやって来て、イリーナが冬の間使える電気ストーブを持ってきました。彼女は今でも彼らに感謝していますが、彼女の家はまだ寒いことがよくあります.


「最近、電気が 2 日間ありませんでした」と Iryna は回想します。そのような状況では、彼女には 1 つの選択肢しかありません。より暖かい服装をして、熱いお茶を飲むために最後のガス蓄えを使い果たすことです。


Elderly won't leave their homes

The elderly are among those in the gravest danger along the front due to the dropping temperatures. But many don't want to leave their homes, even if they have family members who could get them out of the country or at least bring them to regions that are less devastated by the war.

 Until a few days ago, Oxana Melnyk's mother lived in a village on the other side of the front, in a region of eastern Ukraine currently occupied by Russia.

For weeks she tried to convince her mother to leave the village. She warned her about the increasingly intense battles in the region and about the coming winter. But the 70-year-old refused. "She thought she'd manage to survive somehow, and that it would soon be over," Oxana says. "But now everyone knows it's a long way from being over."

 In the end, Melnyk summoned up all of her courage and hopped into her 40-year-old Lada. She and an acquaintance drove along the destroyed streets of the corridor that used to connect the territories controlled by the Ukrainians with those controlled by the Russians.

Appearing in person, she was able to convince her mother to pack up her bags and leave. "I just repeatedly explained to her that it was a matter of her living or dying. What has true value? Not this apartment or some car or something like that. Only living matters in the end."

  高齢者は、気温の低下により、前線に沿って最も深刻な危険にさらされている人々の 1 人です。しかし、多くの人は、国外に連れ出すか、少なくとも戦争の被害が少ない地域に連れて行ってくれる家族がいても、家を離れたくない.


何週間もの間、彼女は母親に村を去るよう説得しようとしました。彼女は、この地域でますます激しさを増している戦闘と、来る冬について彼女に警告しました。しかし、70 歳の男性はそれを拒否しました。「彼女はなんとか生き延びられると思っていました。そして、それはすぐに終わるだろうと思っていました」とオクサナは言います。「しかし今、誰もがそれが終わるには長い道のりであることを知っています。」

最後に、Melnyk は勇気を振り絞って、40 歳の Lada に飛び乗りました。彼女と知人は、ウクライナ人が支配する地域とロシア人が支配する地域を結ぶ回廊の破壊された通りを車で走りました。



Oxana Melnyk fetched her mother in Russian-occupied Ukraine with a 40-year-old LadaImage: DW

Safety and warmth in Zaporizhzhya

On their journey back, the women's car got bogged in the mud many times. They were also stopped at dozens of Russian and Ukrainian checkpoints. To make things worse, their ancient Lada had engine problems.

Finally, they reached the southeastern Ukrainian city oZaporizhzhya. In addition to being the administrative center of the region, a humanitarian center has been set up there specifically for refugees from Russian-occupied territories.

For the mother and daughter, it's the first somewhat safe place they've reached in days. More importantly, it's a place where they can finally get warm. In the safety of Zaporizhzhya, Melnyk acknowledges that she had initially refused to believe that Russia was weaponizing the winter weather against civilians.

 Now she's changed her mind. "I just pray that God gives them a reason to stop," Melnyk sighs. "May they go in peace. They should just leave our country so that no more people have to die."

The two women don't know what the future holds for them. For now, they want to head to Odesa because Melnyk has an apartment there.

But it's not safe in Odesa either. Like many other places in Ukraine, the city is a frequent target for airstrikes. But at least the winter months in the coastal city on the Black Sea aren't as brutal as they are in the east of the country.

This article has been translated from German.



母娘にとって、ここ数日で初めて辿り着いたやや安全な場所。さらに重要なことは、彼らが最終的に暖まることができる場所です. Zaporizhzhya の安全のために、Melnyk は当初、ロシアが民間人に対して冬の天候を武器にしていると信じることを拒否していたことを認めています。


2 人の女性は、自分たちの将来がどうなるかわかりません。とりあえず、メルニクがアパートを持っているオデッサに向かいたいと思っています。



>>( ´Д`)=3 フゥ。